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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), discovered in 1991, have been a subject of intensive research for a wide range of applications. These one-dimensional (1D) graphene sheets rolled into a tubular form have been the target of many researchers around the world. This book concentrates on the semiconductor physics of carbon nanotubes, it brings unique insight into the phenomena encountered in the electronic structure when operating with carbon nanotubes. This book also presents to reader useful information on the fabrication and applications of these outstanding materials. The main objective of this book is to give in-depth understanding of the physics and electronic structure of carbon nanotubes. Readers of this book should have a strong background on physical electronics and semiconductor device physics. This book first discusses fabrication techniques followed by an analysis on the physical properties of carbon nanotubes, including density of states and electronic structures. Ultimately, the book pursues a significant amount of work in the industry applications of carbon nanotubes.
Molecular- and Nano-Tubes summarizes recent advancements in the synthesis, fabrication and applications of tubular structures. An interdisciplinary overview of innovative science focused on tubular structures is provided. The reader is offered an overview of the different fields that molecular and nano tubes appear in, in order to learn the fundamental basics as well as the applications of these materials. This book also: Shows how nanotechnology creates novel materials by crossing the barriers between biology and material science, electronics and optics, medicine and more Demonstrates that tubes are a fundamental element in nature and used in disparate applications such as ion channels and carbon nanotubes Molecular- and Nano-Tubes is an ideal volume for researchers and engineers working in materials science and nanotechnology.
Ein moderner Adidas Originals-Klassiker, der auf dem Erbe des 1993er Laufröhrchens mit einem atmungsaktiven Obermaterial basiert
The continued search for rapid, efficient and cost-effective means of analytical measurement has introduced supercritical fluids into the field of analytical chemistry. Two areas are common: supercritical fluid chroma tography and supercritical fluid extraction. Both seek to exploit the unique properties of a gas at temperatures and pressures above the critical point. The most common supercritical fluid is carbon dioxide, employed because of its low critical temperature (31 °C), inertness, purity, non-toxicity and cheapness. Alternative supercritical fluids are also used and often in conjunction with modifiers. The combined gas-like mass transfer and liquid-like solvating characteristics have been used for improved chroma tographic separation and faster sample preparation. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is complementary to gas chro matography ( GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), providing higher efficiency than HPLC, together with the ability to analyse thermally labile and high molecular weight analytes. Both packed and open tubular columns can be employed, providing the capability to analyse a wide range of sample types. In addition, flame ionization detection can be used, thus providing 'universal' detection.
Using an in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) approach to investigate the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as well as the fabrication and properties of CNT-clamped metal atomic chains (MACs) is the focus of the research summarized in this thesis. The application of an in situ TEM approach in the above-mentioned research provides not only real-time observation but also monitored machining and structural evolvement at the atomic level. In this thesis, the author introduces a CNT tubular nano furnace that can be operated under TEM for investigation of the CNT nucleation mechanism. By studying the nucleation process of CNTs in the presence of various catalysts, including iron-based metallic catalysts and silicon oxide-based non-metallic catalysts, the physical states of the catalysts as well as the nucleation and growth process of CNTs are revealed. Based on the understanding of the nucleation mechanism, the author proposes a hetero-epitaxial growth strategy of CNTs from boron nitride, which provides a new route for the controllable growth of CNTs. In addition, the author presents an electron beam-assisted nanomachining technique and the fabrication of a CNT-clamped MAC prototype device based on this technique. The formation process of CNT-clamped Fe atomic chains (ACs) can be monitored with atomic resolution. The demonstrated quantized conductance and uninfluenced half-metallic properties of Fe ACs indicate that CNTs can be promising nanoscale electrodes or interconnectors for the linking and assembly of nano and subnano structures.
Heme oxygenases (HOs) are the enzymes responsible for the breakdown of heme and the generation of biliverdin/bilirubin and carbon monoxide (CO). The kidney is a complex organ consisting of many different cell types all working together for the single purpose of filtering the blood to eliminate waste products and conserving ions, minerals, and water necessary for life. HO enzymes and their products play a critical role in the normal function of the kidney as well as protecting the kidney from various insults including ischemia and exposure to nephrotoxins. For example, the HO metabolite, bilirubin, is a potent antioxidant which can limit damage to renal tubular epithelial cells following exposure to nephrotoxins associated with chemotherapy or traumatic injury. Another HO metabolite, CO, is an important vasodilator of renal blood vessels and helps protect against severe decreases in renal blood flow in conditions as diverse as exposure to radiocontrast agents and in hypertension-induced kidney disease. HO and its metabolites also play an important role in the survival of kidney cells after acute and chronic injuries by regulating important cell growth and programmed cell death pathways. The intent of this volume is to highlight the important role that HO enzymes and their related metabolites, bilirubin and CO, play in the regulation of renal function and in the response of the kidney to both acute and chronic pathologies. Table of Contents: Introduction to the HO System / HO and Renal Vascular Function / HO and Renal Tubule Function / HO and Acute Kidney Injury / HO and Chronic Kidney Injury / Future of Renal HO Research / References